Natural Gas Hydrate Production Methods: A Review
Due to industrialization and urbanization, the world energy need is increased enormously. A significant portion of which comes from fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas). These resources are exhausting at an alarming rate and growing environmental concerns. There are stupendous deposits of natural gas hydrate (NGH) worldwide. Due to its vast occurrence (around 3000 TCM) and high-volume capacity (1 m3 of hydrate store 170-180 m3 of methane gas), NGH is considered as a possible alternative and a clean energy source. NGH has attracted the attention of both academia and industry. Unlike other conventional and unconventional energy sources, NGH production requires some distinct techniques due to its nature. There are four production methods (depressurization, thermal stimulation, chemical injection, and CO2-CH4 exchange) to produce NGH, but all these methods lack gas production at a commercial scale. Academia and industry are in the quest to find new methods to produce it safely and commercially. This review paper briefly introduces NGH and its conventional production techniques. Furthermore, the paper will also review novel production techniques and enhance NGH production techniques.
Makogon YF, Holditch SA, Makogon TY. Natural gas-hydrates - A potential energy source for the 21st Century. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 2007;56:14–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2005.10.009.
UNFPA. World Population Dashboard n.d. https://www.unfpa.org/data/world-population-dashboard (accessed January 13, 2022).
BP. Statistical review of world energy. 2019.
E.I.A. Annual energy outlook , Department of Energy; Washington D.C. U.S. 2013.
Li XS, Xu CG, Zhang Y, Ruan XK, Li G WY, Li X sen, Xu CG, Zhang Y, Ruan XK, Li G, et al. Investigation into gas production from natural gas hydrate: A review. Applied Energy 2016;172:286–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.101.
WEO. World energy outlook: The Role Of Nuclear & Renewables. EDP Sciences 2013.
Sloan ED. Gas hydrates: Review of physical/chemical properties. Energy and Fuels 1998;12:191–6. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef970164+.
E. D SLOAN. Introductory overview: Hydrate knowledge development. American Mineralogist 2004;89:1155–61.
E. Dendy Sloan Jr. Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates. Nature 2003;426:353–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02135.
KA Kvenvolden，, Claypool G. Gas hydrates in oceanic sediment. USGS 1988.
Kenneth J.P. Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union 2003;85:513–6. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002EO000359.
Collett T, Bahk JJ, Baker R, Boswell R, Divins D, Frye M, et al. Methane hydrates in nature-current knowledge and challenges. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 2015;60:319–29. https://doi.org/10.1021/je500604h.
Kvenvolden KA, Lorenson TD. The global occurrence of natural gas hydrate. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 124, Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2001, p. 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1029/GM124p0003.
Koh CA, Sum AK, Sloan ED. State of the art: Natural gas hydrates as a natural resource. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 2012;8:132–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2012.01.005.
Milkov A v. Global estimates of hydrate-bound gas in marine sediments: How much is really out there? Earth-Science Reviews 2004;66:183–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2003.11.002.
Guo D, Ou W, Ning F, Fang B, Liang Y, Ud Din S, et al. Effects of hydrophilic and hydrophobic nano‐CaCO 3 on kinetics of hydrate formation. Energy Science & Engineering 2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/ese3.1042.
Davidson DW. Clathrate Hydrates. Water in Crystalline Hydrates Aqueous Solutions of Simple Nonelectrolytes, Springer; 1973, p. 115–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6958-6.
Veluswamy HP, Kumar R, Linga P. Hydrogen storage in clathrate hydrates: Current state of the art and future directions. Appl Energy 2014;122:112–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.01.063.
Warrier P, Khan MN, Srivastava V, Maupin CM, Koh CA. Overview: Nucleation of clathrate hydrates. Journal of Chemical Physics 2016;145:12. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4968590.
Gabitto JF, Tsouris C. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates : A Review. Journal OfThermodynamics 2010:12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/271291.
Aman ZM, Koh CA. Interfacial phenomena in gas hydrate systems. Chem Soc Rev 2016;45:1678–90. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cs00791g.
Lee JY, Ryu BJ, Yun TS, Lee J, Cho GC. Review on the gas hydrate development and production as a new energy resource. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 2011;15:689–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-011-0009-3.
Collett TS. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates. vol. 86. 2002.
Ye J, Qin X, Xie W, Lu H, Ma B, Qiu H, et al. The second natural gas hydrate production test in the South China Sea. China Geology 2020;3:197–209. https://doi.org/10.31035/cg2020043.
USGS. Energy Resource Program n.d. http://energy.usgs.gov.
Decourt B, Alias S, Debarre R, Askew P. Taking the Heat out of the Burning-ice Debate Potential and Future of Gas Hydrates. Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition 2015. https://doi.org/10.2118/176950-ms.
Collett TS KVA. Hydrates contain vast store of world gas resources. Oil Gas J 1998;96:90–5.
Collett TS, Survey USG, Ginsburg GD, Petersburg S. Gas Hydrates in the Messoyakha Gas Field of the West Siberian Basin — A Re-Examination of the Geologic Evidence 1998;8.
Chong ZR, Yang SHB, Babu P, Linga P, Li X sen. Review of natural gas hydrates as an energy resource: Prospects and challenges. Applied Energy 2016;162:1633–52.
Chen Z, Feng J, Li X, Zhang Y, Li B, Lv Q. Preparation of warm brine in situ seafloor based on the hydrate process for marine gas hydrate thermal stimulation. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 2014;53:14142–57. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie501181r.
Yan K, Li X, Chen Z, Li B XC. Molecular dynamics simulation of methane hydrate dissociation by depressurisation. Mol Simul 2013;39:251–260.
Li XS, Xu CG, Zhang Y, Ruan XK, Li G WY. Investigation into gas production from natural gas hydrate: A review. Applied Energy 2016;172:286–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.101.
Feng J, Li G, Li X, Li B, Chen Z. Evolution of Hydrate Dissociation by Warm Brine Stimulation Combined Depressurization in the South China Sea 2013:5402–25. https://doi.org/10.3390/en6105402.
Li B, Li X sen, Li G, Feng JC, Wang Y. Depressurization induced gas production from hydrate deposits with low gas saturation in a pilot-scale hydrate simulator. Applied Energy 2014;129:274–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.05.018.
Li G, Li X sen, Li B, Wang Y. Methane hydrate dissociation using inverted five-spot water flooding method in cubic hydrate simulator. Energy 2014;64:298–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.10.015.
G. D. Holder; G. CorbinK. D; Papadopoulos. Thermodynamic and Molecular Properties of Gas Hydrates from Mixtures Containing Methane, Argon, and Krypton. Ind Eng Chem Fund 1980;19:282–6. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160075a008.
Li B, Li XS, Li G CZY. Evaluation of gas production from Qilian Mountain permafrost hydrate deposits in two-spot horizontal well system. Cold Reg Sci Technol 2015;109.
P.L. Mcguire. Methane hydrate gas production by thermal stimulation, 4th Canadian permafrost confrence. 1982:356–62.
Li G, Li XS, Tang LG ZY. Experimental investigation of production behavior of methane hydrate under ethylene glycol injection in unconsolidated sediment. Energy Fuels 2007;21:3388–93.
Li G, Li X sen, Wang Y, Zhang Y. Production behavior of methane hydrate in porous media using huff and puff method in a novel three-dimensional simulator. Energy 2011;36:3170–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.03.006.
Sloan Jr ED KCA. Clathrate hydrates of the natural gases. 2008. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 3rd Ed 2008.
Fan S, Zhang Y, Tian G, Liang D LD. Natural gas hydrate dissociation by presence of ethylene glycol. Energy Fuels 2006;20:324–6.
Kawamura T, Sakamoto Y, Ohtake M, Yamamoto Y, Haneda H, Yoon JH, et al. Dissociation behavior of hydrate core sample using thermodynamic inhibitor. International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering 2006;16:5–9.
Demirbas A. Processes for methane production from gas hydrates. Methane Gas Hydrate. London. Springer 2010.
Dong F, Zang X, Li D, Fan S, Liang D. Experimental Investigation on Propane Hydrate Dissociation by High Concentration Methanol and Ethylene Glycol Solution Injection 2009;29:1563–7.
Sira JH, Patil SL KVA. Study of hydrate dissociation by methanol and glycol injection. SPE Ann Tech Conf Exh 1990.
Qi Y, Wu W, Liu Y, Xie Y CX. Fluid Phase Equilibria The influence of NaCl ions on hydrate structure and thermodynamic equilibrium conditions of gas hydrates. Fluid Phase Equilibria 2012;325:6–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2012.04.009.
Yi L LD. Decomposition mechanism of methane hydrate in brine solution by molecular dynamics simulation., Beijing. In: Proc Int’l Conf on Gas Hydrates 2014.
Ohgaki K IY. A proposal for gas-storage on the ocean-floor using gas hydrates. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbun 1991;17:1053–1055.
Ohgaki K IY. A proposal for gas storage on the bottom of the ocean, using gas hydrates. 1994;34:417–419 . Int Chem Eng 1994:417–9.
Ebinuma T. Method for dumping and disposing of carbon dioxide gas and apparatus therefor. Google Patents 1993.
Englezos P. Clathrate Hydrates. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 1993;32:1251–74. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie00019a001.
Makogon YF. Hydrates of natural gas. PETROLEUM ENGINEERING – UPSTREAM 1974.
Goel N. In situ methane hydrate dissociation with carbon dioxide sequestration: Current knowledge and issues. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 2006;51:169–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.01.005.
Ohgaki K, Takano K, Sangawa H, Matsubara T NS. Methane exploitation by carbon dioxide from gas hydrates. Phase equilibria for CO2–CH4 mixed hydrate system. J Chem Eng Jpn 1996;6:478–483.
XU CG LX. Research progress on methane production from natural gas hydrates. 2015;5.
Li B, Li G, Li XS, Li QP, Yang B, Zhang Y et al. Gas production from methane hydrate in a pilot-scale hydrate simulator using the huff and puff method by experimental and numerical studies. Energy Fuels 2012;26:7183–7194.
Li XS, Yang B, Li G, Li B, Zhang Y CZY. Experimental study on gas production from methane hydrate in porous media by huff and puff method in pilot-scale hydrate simulator. Fuel 2012;94:486–94.
Wang Y, Li XS, Li G, Huang NS FJC. Experimental study on the hydrate dissociation in porous media by five-spot thermal huff and puff method. Fuel 2014;117:688–696.
Li XS, Wan LH, Li G, Li QP, Chen ZY YKF. Experimental investigation into the production behavior of methane hydrate in porous sediment with hot brine stimulation. Ind Eng Chem Res 2008;47:9696–96702.
Li G, Li XS, Zhang KN, Li B ZY. Effects of impermeable boundaries on gas production from hydrate accumulations in the Shenhu Area of the South China Sea. Energies 2013;6:4078–4096.
Li XS, Yang B, Duan L-P, Li G, Huang N-S ZY. Experimental study on gas production from methane hydrate in porous media by SAGD method. Applied Energy 2013;112:1233–40.
Ruppel C. Methane Hydrates and the Future of Natural Gas. MITEI Natural Gas Report, Supplementary Paper on Methane Hydrates 4 2011:1–25.
Josui K, Miyakawa N, Tei K, Sugimoto D, Fujioka T. Excavation of methane hydrate using COIL. Lasers and Applications in Science and Engineering, vol. 6101, San Jose, California, United States: 2006, p. 610127. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.682593.
Li DL, Liang DQ, Fan SS, Li X sen, Tang LG, Huang NS. In situ hydrate dissociation using microwave heating: Preliminary study. Energy Conversion and Management 2008;49:2207–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.01.031.
Islam MR. A new recovery technique for gas production from Alaskan gas hydrate. J Pet Sci Eng 1994;11:257–81.
Castaldi MJ, Zhou Y, Yegulalp TM. Down-hole combustion method for gas production from methane hydrates. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 2007;56:176–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.031.
Fulong N, Guosheng J, Fenglin T, Xiang W, Xianyi P. Utilizing Geothermal Energy To Marine Gas Hydrate. Nat Gas Ind (in Chinese) 2006;26:136–8.
Li F, Yuan Q, Li T, Li Z, Sun C, Chen G. A review: Enhanced recovery of natural gas hydrate reservoirs. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjche.2018.11.007.
Bhattacharjee G, Barmecha V, Choudhary N, Pande NK, Chugh P, Kumar R. Methane hydrate dissociation in the presence of novel benign additives Assessing the feasibility of using the heat demand-outdoor , demand temperature function for Barmecha district heat forecast. Energy Procedia 2018;158:5856–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.540.
Dallimore SR, Collett TS, Uchida T. Overview of Scientific Investigations of Gas Hydrate Occurrences at the Mallik Field , Mackenzie Delta , Canada. Canadina Society of Petroleum Geologists 2002:39.
Kurihara M, Sato A, Funatsu K, Ouchi H, Yamamoto K, Numasawa M, et al. Analysis of production data for 2007/2008 mallik gas hydrate production tests in Canada. Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China 2010, IOGCEC 2010;4:2908–31. https://doi.org/10.2523/132155-ms.
Hancock SH, Collett TS, Dallimore SR, Satoh T, Inoue T, Huenges E, et al. Overview of thermal-stimulation production-test results for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 2005;585:1–15.
Li J, Ye J, Qin X, Qiu H, Wu N, Lu H, et al. The first offshore natural gas hydrate production test in South China Sea. China Geology 2018;1:5–16. https://doi.org/10.31035/cg2018003.
Schoderbek D, Farrell H, Howard J, Raterman K, Silpngarmlert S, Martin K, et al. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test Final Technical Report. Prepared by ConocoPhillips Company for the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory 2013. https://doi.org/10.2172/1123878.
JOGMEC. Gas produced from methane hydrate (provisional). New Release 2013.
Dallimore SR, Collett TS, Uchida T. The second off shore production of methane hydrate in the Nankai Trough and gas production behavior from a heterogeneous methane hydrate reservoir. RSC Advances 2019:25987–6013. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9ra00755e.
Wang XH, Sun YF, Wang YF, Li N, Sun CY, Chen GJ, et al. Gas production from hydrates by CH4-CO2/H2 replacement. Applied Energy 2017;188:305–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.12.021.
Rice W. Hydrogen production from methane hydrate with sequestering of carbon dioxide. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2006;31:1955–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.01.017.
Kvamme B. Feasibility of simultaneous CO2 storage and CH4 production from natural gas hydrate using mixtures of CO2 and N2. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 2015:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjc-2014-0501.
Park Y, Kim D-Y, Lee J-W, Huh D-G, Park K-P, Lee J, et al. Sequestering carbon dioxide into complex structures of naturally occurring gas hydrates. PNAS 2006;103:12690–4. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0602251103.
Shin K, Park Y, Cha M, Park KP, Huh DG, Lee J, et al. Swapping phenomena occurring in deep-sea gas hydrates. Energy and Fuels 2008;22:3160–3. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef8002087.
Boswell R, Schoderbek D, Collett TS, Ohtsuki S, White M, Anderson BJ. The Iġnik Sikumi field experiment, Alaska North Slope: Design, operations, and implications for CO2-CH4 exchange in gas hydrate reservoirs. Energy and Fuels 2017;31:140–53. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01909.
Koh DY, Ahn YH, Kang H, Park S, Lee JY, Kim SJ, et al. One-dimensional productivity assessment for on-field methane hydrate production using CO2/N2 mixture gas. AIChE Journal 2015;61:1004–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.14687.
Shouwei Z, Qingping L, Wei C, Jianliang Z. The World ’s First Successful Implementation of Solid Fluidization Well Testing and Production for Non-Diagenetic Natural Gas Hydrate Buried in Shallow Layer in Deep Water. Offshore Technology Conference, Houstan, Texas, USA: 2018, p. 1–11. https://doi.org/10.4043/28759-MS.
Wang GG, Zhong L, Zhou S, Liu Q, Li Q, Fu Q, et al. Jet breaking tools for natural gas hydrtae exploitation and their support technologies,. Natural Gas Industry B 2018;5:312–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ngib.2017.12.011.
Wu K, Jia T, Lian D, Yan C, Dai M. Research on desing of mining tools of marine gas hydrate reservoirs. Mechanical Science and Technology for Aerospace Engineering 2017;36:225–31.
Al-Muntasheri GA. A Critical Review of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids over the Last Decade. 2014. https://doi.org/10.2118/169552-MS.
Gomaa AM, Qu Q, Maharidge R, Nelson S, Reed T, Hughes B. New Insights into Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale Formations. IPTC, 2014. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17594-MS.
Chen C, Yang L, Jia R, Sun Y, Guo W, Chen Y, et al. Simulation study on the effect of fracturing technology on the production efficiency of natural gas hydrate. Energies 2017;10. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081241.
Sun J, Ning F, Liu T, Liu C, Chen Q, Li Y, et al. Gas production from a silty hydrate reservoir in the South China Sea using hydraulic fracturing: A numerical simulation. Energy Science and Engineering 2019;7:1106–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/ese3.353.
Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences by BUITEMS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.buitms.edu.pk.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://journal.buitms.edu.pk/j/index.php/bj