The effect of noise on motor task functioning among young motorcyclist: A controlled experiment

Anila Ali, Roslinah Mohamad Hussain, Ali Asghar, Syed Zameer Ul Hassan, Gohram Khan Malghani, samiullah khan, Nazri Che Dom, Muhammad Qasim Khan

Abstract


Motorcycle is a complex machine, and its riding requires mental alertness along with mind and body coordination. On the road, motorcyclists are subjected to excessive level of noise (> 90 dBA). High noise exposure can impair the motor task functioning. The assessment of motor task (dexterity) of motorcyclists under noise exposure has not been examined formerly as well as their psychological health profiling. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the effects of noise-induced motor task functioning among young motorcyclists (19 – 24 yrs.). The controlled laboratory experiment was conducted on undergraduate university motorcyclists (n = 60; 30 males, 30 females). Two groups were formed experimental (Exp-G; n = 30) and a controlled (Con-G; n = 30). The Exp-G operated motor activity test under 85-90 dBA motorcycle noise exposure, while Con-G exposed to controlled noise (65 dBA) levels. The sound level was examined concurrently by calibrated (114 dBA) Sound Level Meter. Purdue Pegboard battery test was used to measure motor task functioning consisting four subtests (Dominant Hand; Non-Dominant Hand; Both Hands; Assembly). The Independent sample t-test was used across all subtests to examine the comparison effect of motor task function (dexterity) between Exp-G and Con-G, and amongst genders. Result showed that the Con-G had significantly good quality presentation (p < 0.05) in all the subtests of Purdue Pegboard as compared to Exp-G. Gender differences were not found statistically significant (p > 0.05). Based on mean values, male participants of the Exp-G performed better under high noise levels than females, while among Con-G, females performed better. The results demonstrated significant effect of motorcycle noise on decreased motor task functioning of the participants (Exp-G). Therefore, it concludes that on-road excessive noise level exposure can hinder the motor task functioning and can contribute to impair the reaction time on excruciating hazardous position.

Full Text:

PDF

References


L. Y. Le Loo, J. Corcoran, D. Mateo-Babiano, and R. Zahnow, “Transport mode choice in South East Asia: Investigating the relationship between transport users’ perception and travel behaviour in Johor Bahru, Malaysia,” J. Transp. Geogr., vol. 46, pp. 99–111, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.06.011.

T. P. Hsu, Ahmad Farhan Mohd Sadullah, and N. X. Dao., “A comparative study on motorcycle traffic development of Taiwan, Malaysia and Vietnam,” J. East. Asia Soc. Transp. Stud., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 179–193, 2003.

A. Ahmed, A. F. M. Sadullah, and A. S. Yahya, “Errors in accident data, its types, causes and methods of rectification-analysis of the literature,” Accid. Anal. Prev., no. 8, pp. 0–1, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.018.

WHO, “Global status report on road safety 2013 ‘supporting a decade of action, Luxembourg,’” Luxembourg, 2013.

H. Hussain, R. Umar, R. Sohadi, a Farhan, and M. Dadang, “Key components of a motorcycle traffic system: A study aong the Motorcycle Path in Malaysia,” IATSS Res., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2005, doi: 10.1016/S0386-1112(14)60118-7.

H. Rashid et al., “Motorcyclist muscle fatigue index: An effort to help reducing motorcycle accidents,” Contemp. Ergon. Hum. Factors 2014 Proc. Int. Conf. Ergon. Hum. Factors 2014, Southampton, UK, 7-10 April 2014, p. 425. CRC Press, vol. 2, 2014.

M. M. Abdul Manan and A. Várhelyi, “Motorcyclists’ road safety related behavior at access points on primary roads in Malaysia - A case study,” Saf. Sci., vol. 77, pp. 80–94, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2015.03.012.

N. H. N. Rahman, K. A. Baharuddin, and S. M. S. Mohamad, “Burden of motorcycle-related injury in Malaysia,” Int. J. Emerg. Med., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 4–9, 2015, doi: 10.1186/s12245-015-0065-4.

K. Malone, A. Silla, C. Johanssen, and D. Bell, “Safety, mobility and comfort assessment methodologies of intelligent transport systems for vulnerable road users,” Eur. Transp. Res. Rev., vol. 9, no. 2, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s12544-017-0235-y.

L. C. den Boer and A. Schroten, “Traffic noise reduction in Europe,” 2007. doi: 07.4451.27.

Royal Malaysia Police, “Royal Malaysia Police Annual Report, 2009,” Kuala Lumpur, 2009.

A. Ali et al., “Epidemiological root cause analysis of noise and physio ‐ psycho impacts related to motorcycle road accidents,” J. Sci. Res. Dev., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 150–156, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://jsrad.org/wp-content/2016/Issue 5, 2016/23j.pdf.

S. J. Lupien et al., “Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits.,” Nat. Neurosci., vol. 1, pp. 69–73, 1998, doi: 10.1038/271.

S. J. Lupien et al., “Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, pp. 225–242, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.08.003.

J. Padmanaban and V. Eyges, “Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S,” Proc. 4th Int. Road Traffic Accid. Database Conf. Road Saf. Data Collect. Anal. Target Setting Monit. Performances Progress, Seoul, South Korea, 2009.

M. G. Masuri, K. A. M. Isa, and M. P. M. Tahir, “Children, Youth and Road Environment: Road Traffic Accident,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 213–218, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.342.

H. D. Harvey, J. O. Hetherington, A. Woodside, and C. Jordan, “Noise induced hearing loss in motorcyclists,” Assoc. Eur. Transp., 2002.

J. Peraphan, K. Hermann, and M. Markus, “The conundrum of the motorcycle in the mix of sustainable urban transport,” Transp. Res. Procedia, vol. 25, pp. 4873–4894, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.365.

A. W. McCombe, “Hearing loss in motorcyclists: occupational and medicolegal aspects,” J. R. Soc. Med., vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 7–9, Jan. 2003, doi: 10.1258/jrsm.96.1.7.

ISVR Consulting University of Southampton, “Noise levels under motorcycle helmets,” 2014. http://www.isvr.co.uk/at_work/m_cycle.htm (accessed Feb. 17, 2015).

M. Basner et al., “Auditory and non-auditory eff ects of noise on health,” Lancet, vol. 6736, no. 13, pp. 1–8, 2014, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61613-X.

S. L. You, “A study on the capacity and LOS under mixed traffic,” National Taiwan University, 1993.

N. Abdoli et al., “Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders,” Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat., vol. 11, pp. 2071–2078, 2015.

J. Kennedy, M. Carley, I. Walker, and N. Holt, “On-road and wind-tunnel measurement of motorcycle helmet noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 134, no. 3, p. pp 2004-2010, 2013, doi: 10.1121/1.4817913.

A. Ali, N. C. Dom, R. M. Hussain, S. Karuppannan, and M. Abdullah, “Auditory Profile of Undergraduate University Motorcyclists : Prevalence of Hearing Loss and Hearing Impairment,” EnvironmentAsia, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 217–229, 2018, doi: 10.14456/ea.2018.16.

A. Ali, R. M. Hussain, M. Abdullah, and N. C. Dom, “At-Ear Noise Levels Under the Helmet: A Field Study on Noise Exposure of Young Motorcyclists,” J. Fundam. Apllied Sci., vol. 10, no. 3S, pp. 218–231, 2018.

B. C. Ross, “Noise exposure of motorcyclists,” Occup. Hyg., vol. 33, pp. 123–27, 1989.

A. Ali and R. M. Hussain, “Cognitive Impairment among Young Motorcyclists: A controlled study,” Environ. Proc. J., pp. 1–9, 2018.

M. Picard, S. a. Girard, M. Simard, R. Larocque, T. Leroux, and F. Turcotte, “Association of work-related accidents with noise exposure in the workplace and noise-induced hearing loss based on the experience of some 240,000 person-years of observation,” Accid. Anal. Prev., vol. 40, pp. 1644–1652, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.05.013.

M. G. Masuri, A. Dahlan, A. Danis, and K. A. Isa, “Attitude towards Safe Driving Scale (ASDS-46) as a Future Predictor in Determining a Young Adult Quality Of Life : Part II,” Environ. Proc. J., vol. 2, no. 5, p. 363, 2017, doi: 10.21834/e-bpj. v2i5.705.

D. Norfazila, A. Mustaffa, and M. Ghazali, “Speeding Intention among Young Urban Drivers,” Asian J. Behav. Stud. AjBeS, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 43–51, 2017.

K. P. Waye, J. Bengtsson, R. Rylander, F. Hucklebridge, P. Evans, and A. Clow, “Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance,” Life Sci., vol. 70, pp. 745–758, 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01450-3.

A. Liebl and H. Jahncke, “Review of research on the effects of noise on cognitive performance 2014-2017,” 2017.

H. Jahncke, S. Hygge, N. Halin, A. Marie, and K. Dimberg, “Open-plan office noise: Cognitive performance and restoration,” J. Environ. Psychol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 373–382, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.07.002.

W. Warren, M., Pendleton, H.M. and Schultz-Krohn, “Evaluation and treatment of visual deficits following brain injury,” Occup. Ther. Pract. Ski. Phys. Dysfunct., pp. 532–572, 2006.

K. C. Parsons, “Environmental ergonomics: A review of principles, methods and models,” Appl. Ergon., vol. 31, pp. 581–594, 2000.

L. Tzivian et al., “Effects of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults,” Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, vol. 218, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.08.002.

A. Etkin and T. D. Wager, “Reviews and Overviews Functional Neuroimaging of Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Emotional Processing in PTSD, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Specific Phobia,” Am J Psychiatry, no. October, pp. 1476–1488, 2007.

M. M. Abdul Manan and A. Várhelyi, “Motorcycle fatalities in Malaysia,” IATSS Res., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 30–39, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.iatssr.2012.02.005.

A. Ali, R. M. Hussain, N. C. Dom, and M. Abdullah, “Noise-Induced Cortisol Assessment among Young Motorcyclist : A field study,” Asian J. Qual. Life, vol. 3, no. 13, pp. 117–127, 2018, doi: 10.21834/ajqol.v3i13.168.

S. J. Lupien, B. S. McEwen, M. R. Gunnar, and C. Heim, “Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 434–445, 2009, doi: 10.1038/nrn2639.

J. S. Olver, M. Pinney, P. Maruff, and T. R. Norman, “Impairments of Spatial Working Memory and Attention Following Acute Psychosocial Stress,” Stress Heal., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 115–123, 2013, doi: 10.1002/smi.2533.

S. J. Lupien, C. W. Wilkinson, S. Brière, C. Ménard, N. M. K. Ng Ying Kin, and N. P. V Nair, “The modulatory effects of corticosteroids on cognition: Studies in young human populations,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 27, pp. 401–416, 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00061-0.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36785/jaes.111447

Creative Commons License
Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences by BUITEMS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.buitms.edu.pk.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://journal.buitms.edu.pk/j/index.php/bj

Contacts | Feedback
© 2002-2014 BUITEMS