Design And Development Of Variable Pitch Rotor

Ahsan Ali Memon, Ghullam Sarwar, Imdad Ali Memon, Mohsin Ali Koondhar, Saleemullah Memon, Irfan Ali Channa


In this paper, a new variable pitch rotor for small-scale wind turbine has been designed. The objective is to increase the power output for the turbine wind speed range by pitching the blades using an active mechanism. The current study includes an in-depth analysis, and designed process, detailed components, fabrication and assembly, testing results, recommendations, and conclusions. In this work carried out a mechanism that uses the centrifugal force of masses to drive an active pitching mechanism. The rotation of the rotor creates a centrifugal force that drives three 0.15 kg masses radially outward, resulting in rotation of the blades through a series of linkages. When the rotor slows down, a spring returns the system to its original position. The rotor has a diameter of 27 cm, height of 14 cm and total mass of 1.7 kg. By using a camera, it is confirmed that the pitching motion of the blades up to 15 degrees in the lab with the rotor attached to an electric motor. This newly designed and fabricated wind turbine rotor that self-optimizes will be helpful for achieving maximum conversion efficiency from wind to electricity over the range of operating wind speeds. 


Renewable energy, Wind Turbine, Pitch Rotor, Pitch angle, Pitch speed

Full Text:



C. A. Chen, T. Y. Huang, and C. H. Chen, “Novel plant development of a parallel matrix system of Savonius wind rotors with wind deflector,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2015.

X. Jin, G. Zhao, K. Gao, and W. Ju, “Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine: Basic research methods,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 42, pp. 212–225, 2015.

R. Bajric, N. Zuber, G. A. Skrimpas, and N. Mijatovic, “Feature extraction using discrete wavelet transform for gear fault diagnosis of wind turbine gearbox,” Shock Vib. 2016.

S. Memon, K. A. Memon, and Z. Wang, “Cooperative relaying network under SWIPT MIMO system,” 2019 28th Wirel. Opt. Commun. Conf. WOCC 2019 - Proc., no. May, 2019.

S. Memon, K. A. Memon, Z. A. Zardari, M. A. Panhwar, S. A. Khuhro, and A. Siddiqui, “Novel joint subcarrier and power allocation method in SWIPT for WSNs employing OFDM system,” Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 263–267, 2019.

E. Noghreian and H. R. Koofigar, “Power control of hybrid energy systems with renewable sources (wind-photovoltaic) using switched systems strategy,” Sustain. Energy, Grids Networks, vol. 21, p. 100280, 2020.

Y. ZHANG, C. JIANG, Y. WANG, F. SUN, and H. WANG, “Design and application of an Electric Tail Rotor Drive Control (ETRDC) for helicopters with performance tests,” Chinese J. Aeronaut., vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1894–1901, 2018.

X. Jin, Y. Wang, W. Ju, J. He, and S. Xie, “Investigation into parameter influence of upstream deflector on vertical axis wind turbines output power via three-dimensional CFD simulation,” Renew. Energy, vol. 115, pp. 41–53, 2018.

F. Zhou and J. Liu, “Pitch Controller Design of Wind Turbine Based on Nonlinear PI/PD Control,” Shock Vib., vol. 2018, 2018.

K. Watanabe, S. Takahashi, and Y. Ohya, “Application of a diffuser structure to vertical-axis wind turbines,” Energies, vol. 9, no. 6, 2016.

S. Brusca, R. Lanzafame, and M. Messina, “Design of a vertical-axis wind turbine: how the aspect ratio affects the turbine’s performance,” Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 333–340, 2014.

A. Khalid, “Freshmen research project: Design, development and testing of variable pitch propeller thrust measurement apparatus a case study,” ASEE Annu. Conf. Expo. Conf. Proc., 2012.

D. Han, “Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators,” Chinese J. Aeronaut., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1408–1415, 2015.

P. Li, R. Dargaville, Y. Cao, D. Y. Li, and J. Xia, “Storage Aided System Property Enhancing and Hybrid Robust Smoothing for Large-Scale PV Systems,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 2871–2879, 2017.

R. Cepeda-Gomez, “Control of Pitch-Flap Instabilities in Helicopter Rotors using Delayed Feedback,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 82–87, 2016.

D. X. Llano and R. A. McMahon, “Control Techniques With System Efficiency Comparison for Microwind Turbines,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1609–1617, 2017.


Creative Commons License
Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences by BUITEMS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at

Contacts | Feedback
© 2002-2014 BUITEMS