Improving TICK efficiency by GA-based fuzzy membership functions optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Muhammad Ashraf, Tae Ho Cho, Muhammad Akram, Hamayoun Shahwani, Syed Attique Shah, Surat Khan, Faizullah Khan, Akbar Khan, Muhammad Qasim Khan


In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the energy and computational capacity of the sensor nodes are limited and they are deployed in a hostile environment. An adversary can easily compromise a sensor node and injects false data into the network. This injection of false data drastically depletes the energy of the nodes designated on the route for forwarding the source data. Many filtering methods have been proposed to tackle the security issues but they also increase the communication cost by exchanging the control keying messages which consumes more energy with in the network. Fuzzy logic for TICK was proposed to reduce the communication cost and increase the energy efficiency of the en-route nodes by selecting the re-encrypting nodes efficiently and avoiding the exchange of control keying messages in the network. Membership functions in the fuzzy system need to be optimized in order to use the fuzzy inferencing more efficiently. We propose an optimized fuzzy membership functions method by using genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm determines the optimal membership functions which help in selecting the most favourite re-encrypting nodes in TICK based wireless sensor network. Simulation results show that the proposed method optimizes the membership functions and achieves better energy conservation at sensor nodes.


wireless sensor networks, en-route filtering, false report injection attack, energy efficiency, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm.

Full Text:



I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 08, pp.102-114, Aug 2002.

S.R.J Romson and D. J. Moni, "Applications of wireless sensor networks- A survey," Proc. in IEEE Innovations in EEMIT, Fab 2017.

P. Dawal, G. S. Narula, V. Jain and A. Baliyan, "Security attacks in wireless sensor networks: A survey," Cyber Security (Springer), vol. 729, pp. 47-58, April 2018.

T. Kim and H. Lee, "Performance evaluation of the RIX-MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks," KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 746-784, February 2017.

F. Ye, H. Luo, S. Lu and L. Zhang, "Statistical en-route filtering of injected false data in sensor networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 23, no. 4, pp.839–850, April 2005.

Yang, H. Yang and S. Lu, "Commutative cipher based en-route filtering in wireless sensor networks," In Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 2, pp. 1223-1227, October 2004.

S. Zhu, S. Setia, S. Jajodia and P. Ning, "An Interleaved Hop-by-Hop Authentication Scheme for Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Symposium on Security and privacy, pp. 259–271, May 2004.

C. Kraub, M. Schneider, K. Bayarou and C. Eckert, "Stef: A secure ticket-based en-route filtering scheme for wireless sensor networks," In 2nd Int. Conf. on Availability, Reliability and Security, pp. 310–317, April 2007.

L. Eschenauer and V.D. Gligor, "A key-management scheme for distributed sensor networks," In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 41–47, November 2002.

A.S. Uluagac, R. A. Beyah and J. A. Copeland, "Time-based dynamic keying and en-route filtering (TICK) for wireless sensor networks," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, pp. 1-6, Dec 2010.

A. S. Uluagac, R. A. Beyah and J. A. Copeland, "Secure source based loose synchronization (SOBAS) for wireless sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 803–813, April 2013.

M. Ashraf and T. H. Cho," Energy efficiency enhancement of TICK –based fuzzy logic (EETF) in WSNs," KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 4271-4294, September 2018.

M. Akram and T. H. Cho, "Energy efficient fuzzy adaptive selection of verification nodes in wireless sensor networks," Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 47, pp. 16–25, September 2016.

H. Y. Lee and T. H. Cho, "Fuzzy-Based Reliable Data Delivery for Countering Selective Forwarding in Sensor Networks," In Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing, Hong Kong, China, 11–13 July 2007; pp. 535–544.

H. Y. Lee and T. H. Cho, " Optimizes fuzzy adaptive filtering for ubiquitous sensor networks," IEICE TRANS. COMMUN., vol. E94-B, no. 6, June 2011.

M. Akram and T. H. Cho, "A genetic algorithm-based optimized fuzzy adaptive path selection in wireless sensor networks," SJCMS (Sukkur IBA), Vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–12, June 2018.

B. Peng and L. Li, "An improved localisation algorithm based on genetic algorithm in wireless sensor networks," Cognitive Neurodynamics(Springer), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 249–256, April 2015.

S. P. Singh and S. C. Sharma, "Genetic-algorithm based energy efficienct clustering (GAEEC) for homogenous wireless sensor networks," IETE journal of research, September 2017.


Creative Commons License
Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences by BUITEMS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at

Contacts | Feedback
© 2002-2014 BUITEMS