Removal of Hazardous Materials from Residential and Commercial Liquid Waste Using Solid Sorbents

Azmatullah Khan, Muhammad Habib, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Akram, Naik Muhammad, Nawaz Ali, Zafar Baloch, Saeeda Yousaf, Najeeb Ullah, Gohram Khan, Abdul Malik Rehan Abbasi, Mohammad Danish Saleem, Salman Shahid, Muhammad Sanaullah, Zabiullah Khan, Sheharyar Kakar, Mehrab Malik


Among various pollutants, wastewater consists of toxic or carcinogenic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu). In this study, the contamination of heavy metals in residential (Domestic) and commercial (Car-wash centre) effluents from urban area of Quetta has been investigated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The collected liquid effluent was passed through sorbents in vertical flow. The combined batch of Fly ash and Sawdust (adsorbents) showed high sorption capacity 0.0000424 mg·g-1 for lead (residential liquid waste) and 0.0000012 mg·g-1 for Cu (commercial liquid waste). The moderate partition coefficients were 0.001247 (Pb) and 0.000005 (Cu) mol·kg-1·Pa-1 for residential and commercial waste respectively. The highest removal efficiency of lead (99.763%) for residential effluent showed the breakthrough at 0.002. Thus, the sorbents used have significantly removal efficiency for Pb, moderate for Zn, and low for Cu. The effluent passed from designed filter media may be greatly effective for washing, cleaning and irrigation purpose. 


Lead, Zinc, Copper, domestic waste, Fly ash, Sawdust

Full Text:



Eawag. (2018, November 29). Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development. Available:

S. Khan, Q. Cao, Y. Zheng, Y. Huang, and Y. Zhu, "Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China," Environmental pollution, vol. 152, pp. 686-692, 2008.

UN. (2018, November 28). Untreated wastewater- a growing danger. Available:

Wikipedia. (2018, November 28). Wastewaster. Available:

Worldometer. (2018, November 28). Pakistan population. Available:

J. H. Ensink, T. Mahmood, W. Van der Hoek, L. Raschid-Sally, and F. P. Amerasinghe, "A nationwide assessment of wastewater use in Pakistan: An obscure activity or a vitally important one?," Water policy, vol. 6, pp. 197-206, 2004.

g. WHO, Edition, Fourth, "Guidelines for drinking-water quality," WHO chronicle, vol. 38, pp. 104-8, 2011.

H. M. Zwain, M. Vakili, and I. Dahlan, "Waste material adsorbents for zinc removal from wastewater: a comprehensive review," International Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 2014, 2014.

B. Tyagi, C. D. Chudasama, and R. V. Jasra, "Determination of structural modification in acid activated montmorillonite clay by FT-IR spectroscopy," Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 64, pp. 273-278, 2006.

D. News. (2018, November 30). World Water Day: Water shortage in Quetta poses serious challenges for the people. Available:

Wikipedia. (2018, November 29). Quetta. Available:

Z. Kakar, S. M. Shah, and M. A. Khan, "Scarcity of water resources in rural area of Quetta District; challenges and preparedness," in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, p. 012013.

G. McMullan, C. Meehan, A. Conneely, N. Kirby, T. Robinson, P. Nigam, et al., "Microbial decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes," Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 56, pp. 81-87, 2001.

H. A. Maitlo, J. H. Kim, K.-H. Kim, J. Y. Park, and A. Khan, "Metal-air fuel cell electrocoagulation techniques for the treatment of arsenic in water," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 207, pp. 67-84, 2019.

A. Khan, J. E. Szulejko, K.-H. Kim, P. Sammadar, S. S. Lee, X. Yang, et al., "A comparison of figure of merit (FOM) for various materials in adsorptive removal of benzene under ambient temperature and pressure," Environmental research, vol. 168, pp. 96-108, 2019.

H. A. Maitlo, K.-H. Kim, A. Khan, J. E. Szulejko, J. C. Kim, H. N. Song, et al., "Competitive adsorption of gaseous aromatic hydrocarbons in a binary mixture on nanoporous covalent organic polymers at various partial pressures," Environmental research, vol. 173, pp. 1-11, 2019.

A. Khan, J. E. Szulejko, P. Samaddar, K.-H. Kim, B. Liu, H. A. Maitlo, et al., "The potential of biochar as sorptive media for removal of hazardous benzene in air," Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 361, pp. 1576-1585, 2019.

S. Lowell and J. Shields, "Adsorption isotherms Chapter in: Powder Surface Area and Porosity," ed: Springer: Dordrecht, 1984.

A. Khan, J. E. Szulejko, P. Samaddar, K.-H. Kim, W. Eom, S. B. Ambade, et al., "The effect of diverse metal oxides in graphene composites on the adsorption isotherm of gaseous benzene," Environmental research, vol. 172, pp. 367-374, 2019.


Creative Commons License
Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences by BUITEMS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at

Contacts | Feedback
© 2002-2014 BUITEMS