Nanomaterials: An overview with respect to biological applications

Usama Ahmed Khalid, Roha Tariq, Shabeh Tu Zahra, Talha Ahmad Khalid

Abstract


Nanotechnology embraces the research and technological advancement in a novel category of materials at the macromolecular, molecular and atomic level that is rapidly attaining considerable recognition worldwide. It involves the study of devices and structures ranging from 1- to 100- nanometers in length scale known as nanomaterials that take up specific novel properties. Due to their unique small size, enhanced solubility, surface tailor ability, multi-functionality, shape dependent inherent physicochemical properties, many new biological advances in various fields are opened including medicine, biology, engineering and electronics. The ability of nanomaterial to interact with elaborate biological functions in innovative ways permits cross-disciplinary researchers the chance to plan and develop multifunctional nanoparticles that can target, diagnose, and treat diseases such as cancer. Nanomaterials have vital role in diagnostics, detection to therapeutic and treatment level. Hybrid nanomaterials exhibit higher efficiency as they are the combination of organic and inorganic nanomaterials and their both therapeutics and diagnostics functions can be directed in a single dose. They are specialized form having specific properties and give incredible biomedical, therapeutics and treatment applications. However, there might be health implications associated with it. This review article aims to present an overview of nanomaterials and discuss their biological applications in different areas.


Keywords


Hybrid Nanomaterials, Biological applications, Nanoscience

Full Text:

PDF

References


S. M. Khair, S. Mushtaq, R. J. Culas, and M. Hafeez, “Groundwater markets under the water scarcity and declining watertable conditions: The upland Balochistan Region of Pakistan,” Agricultural Systems, vol. 107, pp. 21-32, 2012.

S. Dubchak, A. Ogar, J. Mietelski, and K. Turnau, “Influence of silver and titanium nanoparticles on arbuscular mycorrhiza colonization and accumulation of radiocaesium in Helianthus annuus,” Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, no. 1, pp. 103-108, 2010.

X. Zhao, F. Bian, L. Sun, L. Cai, L. Li, and Y. Zhao, “Microfluidic Generation of Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications,” Small, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1901943, 2020.

M. Chakraborty, S. Jain, and V. Rani, “Nanotechnology: emerging tool for diagnostics and therapeutics,” Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, vol. 165, no. 5-6, pp. 1178-1187, 2011.

L. Cheng, X. Wang, F. Gong, T. Liu, and Z. Liu, “2D nanomaterials for cancer theranostic applications,” Advanced Materials, vol. 32, no. 13, pp. 1902333, 2020.

A. Kamyshny, and S. Magdassi, “Conductive nanomaterials for 2D and 3D printed flexible electronics,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1712-1740, 2019.

S. Kim, J. M. Kim, J. E. Park, and J. M. Nam, “Plasmonic Nanomaterials: Nonnoble‐Metal‐Based Plasmonic Nanomaterials: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives (Adv. Mater. 42/2018),” Advanced Materials, vol. 30, no. 42, pp. 1870320, 2018.

C. F. Markwalter, A. G. Kantor, C. P. Moore, K. A. Richardson, and D. W. Wright, “Inorganic complexes and metal-based nanomaterials for infectious disease diagnostics,” Chemical reviews, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 1456-1518, 2018.

A. Quintana, E. Raczka, L. Piehler, I. Lee, A. Myc, I. Majoros, A. K. Patri, T. Thomas, J. Mulé, and J. R. Baker, “Design and function of a dendrimer-based therapeutic nanodevice targeted to tumor cells through the folate receptor,” Pharmaceutical research, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1310-1316, 2002.

A. M. Morawski, P. M. Winter, K. C. Crowder, S. D. Caruthers, R. W. Fuhrhop, M. J. Scott, J. D. Robertson, D. R. Abendschein, G. M. Lanza, and S. A. Wickline, “Targeted nanoparticles for quantitative imaging of sparse molecular epitopes with MRI,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: An Official Journal of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 480-486, 2004.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, C. Prinz, H. Cao, R. L. Huang, R. H. Austin, S. Y. Chou, E. C. Cox, and J. C. Sturm, “Micro-and nanofluidics for DNA analysis,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, vol. 378, no. 7, pp. 1678-1692, 2004.

B. J. Kirby, A. R. Wheeler, R. N. Zare, J. A. Fruetel, and T. J. Shepodd, “Programmable modification of cell adhesion and zeta potential in silica microchips,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 5-10, 2003.

E. B. Voura, J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, and S. M. Simon, “Tracking metastatic tumor cell extravasation with quantum dot nanocrystals and fluorescence emission-scanning microscopy,” Nature medicine, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 993-998, 2004.

W. Lian, S. A. Litherland, H. Badrane, W. Tan, D. Wu, H. V. Baker, P. A. Gulig, D. V. Lim, and S. Jin, “Ultrasensitive detection of biomolecules with fluorescent dye-doped nanoparticles,” Analytical biochemistry, vol. 334, no. 1, pp. 135-144, 2004.

J. Kim, J. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Yu, J. H. Lee, T. G. Park, and T. Hyeon, “Designed fabrication of a multifunctional polymer nanomedical platform for simultaneous cancer‐targeted imaging and magnetically guided drug delivery,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 478-483, 2008.

A. Bromley, Theranostics: the influence of diagnostics on pharmaceutical therapy: PJB, 2000.

K. M. Taylor-Pashow, J. Della Rocca, R. C. Huxford, and W. Lin, “Hybrid nanomaterials for biomedical applications,” Chemical Communications, vol. 46, no. 32, pp. 5832-5849, 2010.

J. L. Vivero-Escoto, and Y.-T. Huang, “Inorganic-organic hybrid nanomaterials for therapeutic and diagnostic imaging applications,” International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 3888-3927, 2011.

A. Burns, H. Ow, and U. Wiesner, “Fluorescent core–shell silica nanoparticles: towards “Lab on a Particle” architectures for nanobiotechnology,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1028-1042, 2006.

D. L. Fedlheim, and C. A. Foss, Metal nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications: CRC press, 2001.

I. I. Slowing, J. L. Vivero-Escoto, C.-W. Wu, and V. S.-Y. Lin, “Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as controlled release drug delivery and gene transfection carriers,” Advanced drug delivery reviews, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1278-1288, 2008.

B. G. Trewyn, I. I. Slowing, S. Giri, H.-T. Chen, and V. S.-Y. Lin, “Synthesis and functionalization of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle based on the sol–gel process and applications in controlled release,” Accounts of chemical research, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 846-853, 2007.

A. M. Smith, H. Duan, A. M. Mohs, and S. Nie, “Bioconjugated quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging,” Advanced drug delivery reviews, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1226-1240, 2008.

C. M. Cobley, L. Au, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Targeting gold nanocages to cancer cells for photothermal destruction and drug delivery,” Expert opinion on drug delivery, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 577-587, 2010.

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Accounts of chemical research, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1578-1586, 2008.

W. Lin, T. Hyeon, G. M. Lanza, M. Zhang, and T. J. Meade, “Magnetic nanoparticles for early detection of cancer by magnetic resonance imaging,” MRS bulletin/Materials Research Society, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 441, 2009.

C. Sun, J. S. Lee, and M. Zhang, “Magnetic nanoparticles in MR imaging and drug delivery,” Advanced drug delivery reviews, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1252-1265, 2008.

K. L. Aillon, Y. Xie, N. El-Gendy, C. J. Berkland, and M. L. Forrest, “Effects of nanomaterial physicochemical properties on in vivo toxicity,” Advanced drug delivery reviews, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 457-466, 2009.

D. Chimene, D. L. Alge, and A. K. Gaharwar, “Two‐dimensional nanomaterials for biomedical applications: emerging trends and future prospects,” Advanced Materials, vol. 27, no. 45, pp. 7261-7284, 2015.

M. Ferrari, “Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges,” Nature reviews cancer, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 161-171, 2005.

K. Cho, X. Wang, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Therapeutic nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer,” Clinical cancer research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1310-1316, 2008.

D. Peer, J. M. Karp, S. Hong, O. C. Farokhzad, R. Margalit, and R. Langer, “Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy,” Nature nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 751-760, 2007.

V. P. Torchilin, “Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers,” Nature reviews Drug discovery, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 145-160, 2005.

R. A. Meyer, and J. J. Green, “Shaping the future of nanomedicine: anisotropy in polymeric nanoparticle design,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 191-207, 2016.

S. Kunjachan, S. Kotb, R. Kumar, R. Pola, M. Pechar, F. Gremse, R. Taleeli, F. Trichard, V. Motto-Ros, and L. Sancey, “Targeted Drug Delivery by Radiation-Induced Tumor Vascular Modulation,” bioRxiv, pp. 268714, 2018.

D. Liu, F. Yang, F. Xiong, and N. Gu, “The smart drug delivery system and its clinical potential,” Theranostics, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1306, 2016.

C. Sahlgren, A. Meinander, H. Zhang, F. Cheng, M. Preis, C. Xu, T. A. Salminen, D. Toivola, D. Abankwa, and A. Rosling, “Tailored approaches in drug development and diagnostics: from molecular design to biological model systems,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol. 6, no. 21, pp. 1700258, 2017.

P. Yingchoncharoen, D. S. Kalinowski, and D. R. Richardson, “Lipid-based drug delivery systems in cancer therapy: what is available and what is yet to come,” Pharmacological reviews, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 701-787, 2016.

J. Bai, and B. Zhou, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterials for sensor applications,” Chemical reviews, vol. 114, no. 19, pp. 10131-10176, 2014.

Á. I. López-Lorente, M. Valcárcel, and B. Mizaikoff, “Continuous flow synthesis and characterization of tailor-made bare gold nanoparticles for use in SERS,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 181, no. 9-10, pp. 1101-1108, 2014.

D. Jimenez de Aberasturi, J.-M. Montenegro, I. Ruiz de Larramendi, T. Rojo, T. A. Klar, R. Alvarez-Puebla, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and W. J. Parak, “Optical sensing of small ions with colloidal nanoparticles,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 738-745, 2012.

O. S. Wolfbeis, “An overview of nanoparticles commonly used in fluorescent bioimaging,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 44, no. 14, pp. 4743-4768, 2015.

B. R. Smith, and S. S. Gambhir, “Nanomaterials for in vivo imaging,” Chemical reviews, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 901-986, 2017.

S. Kim, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, H. E. Pudavar, R. K. Pandey, and P. N. Prasad, “Organically modified silica nanoparticles co-encapsulating photosensitizing drug and aggregation-enhanced two-photon absorbing fluorescent dye aggregates for two-photon photodynamic therapy,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 9, pp. 2669-2675, 2007.

J. Miller-Kleinhenz, X. Guo, W. Qian, H. Zhou, E. N. Bozeman, L. Zhu, X. Ji, Y. A. Wang, T. Styblo, and R. O'Regan, “Dual-targeting Wnt and uPA receptors using peptide conjugated ultra-small nanoparticle drug carriers inhibited cancer stem-cell phenotype in chemo-resistant breast cancer,” Biomaterials, vol. 152, pp. 47-62, 2018.

S. H. Cho, B. L. Jones, and S. Krishnan, “The dosimetric feasibility of gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy (GNRT) via brachytherapy using low-energy gamma-/x-ray sources,” Physics in Medicine & Biology, vol. 54, no. 16, pp. 4889, 2009.

D. Y. Joh, L. Sun, M. Stangl, A. Al Zaki, S. Murty, P. P. Santoiemma, J. J. Davis, B. C. Baumann, M. Alonso-Basanta, and D. Bhang, “Selective targeting of brain tumors with gold nanoparticle-induced radiosensitization,” PloS one, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. e62425, 2013.

H. Gehrke, J. Pelka, C. G. Hartinger, H. Blank, F. Bleimund, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, S. Bräse, M. Crone, and M. Türk, “Platinum nanoparticles and their cellular uptake and DNA platination at non-cytotoxic concentrations,” Archives of toxicology, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 799-812, 2011.

J. Pelka, H. Gehrke, M. Esselen, M. Türk, M. Crone, S. Bräse, T. Muller, H. Blank, W. Send, and V. Zibat, “Cellular uptake of platinum nanoparticles in human colon carcinoma cells and their impact on cellular redox systems and DNA integrity,” Chemical research in toxicology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 649-659, 2009.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 100, no. 23, pp. 13549-13554, 2003.

R. J. Chen, S. Bangsaruntip, K. A. Drouvalakis, N. W. S. Kam, M. Shim, Y. Li, W. Kim, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Noncovalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes for highly specific electronic biosensors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 4984-4989, 2003.

A. Giasuddin, K. Jhuma, and A. M. Haq, “Use of gold nanoparticles in diagnostics, surgery and medicine: a review,” Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 56-60, 2012.

Y. L. Bunimovich, G. Ge, K. C. Beverly, R. S. Ries, L. Hood, and J. R. Heath, “Electrochemically programmed, spatially selective biofunctionalization of silicon wires,” Langmuir, vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 10630-10638, 2004.

F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, O. Hayden, M. Lakadamyali, X. Zhuang, and C. M. Lieber, “Electrical detection of single viruses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 101, no. 39, pp. 14017-14022, 2004.

F. Hu, C. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Wang, D. Wu, and Q. Wang, “Real-time in vivo visualization of tumor therapy by a near-infrared-II Ag 2 S quantum dot-based theranostic nanoplatform,” Nano Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1637-1647, 2015.

G. Li, J. Zhai, D. Li, X. Fang, H. Jiang, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “One-pot synthesis of monodispersed ZnS nanospheres with high antibacterial activity,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 41, pp. 9215-9219, 2010.

P. Suyana, S. N. Kumar, B. D. Kumar, B. N. Nair, S. C. Pillai, A. P. Mohamed, K. Warrier, and U. Hareesh, “Antifungal properties of nanosized ZnS particles synthesised by sonochemical precipitation,” RSC advances, vol. 4, no. 17, pp. 8439-8445, 2014.

M. Nagarathinam, J. Chen, and J. J. Vittal, “From self-assembled Cu (II) coordination polymer to shape-controlled CuS nanocrystals,” Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 2457-2463, 2009.

S. S. Chou, B. Kaehr, J. Kim, B. M. Foley, M. De, P. E. Hopkins, J. Huang, C. J. Brinker, and V. P. Dravid, “Chemically exfoliated MoS2 as near‐infrared photothermal agents,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 15, pp. 4160-4164, 2013.

S. Sabella, A. Galeone, G. Vecchio, R. Cingolani, and P. Pompa, “AuNPs are toxic in vitro and in vivo: a review,” Journal of Nanoscience Letters| Volume, vol. 1, no. 3, 2011.

M. E. Samberg, S. J. Oldenburg, and N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, “Evaluation of silver nanoparticle toxicity in skin in vivo and keratinocytes in vitro,” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 407-413, 2010.

M. Mohapatra, and S. Anand, “Synthesis and applications of nano-structured iron oxides/hydroxides–a review,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 8, 2010.

N. Srivastava, “Iron nanoparticles induced toxicity in Sesbania cannabina: a morphological aspect,” Advanced Science Focus, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 135-139, 2014.

Y. Fang, C. Peng, R. Guo, L. Zheng, J. Qin, B. Zhou, M. Shen, X. Lu, G. Zhang, and X. Shi, “Dendrimer-stabilized bismuth sulfide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and potential computed tomography imaging applications,” Analyst, vol. 138, no. 11, pp. 3172-3180, 2013.

V. P. Pattani, and J. W. Tunnell, “Nanoparticle‐mediated photothermal therapy: A comparative study of heating for different particle types,” Lasers in surgery and medicine, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 675-684, 2012.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36785/jaes.v10i2.401

Creative Commons License
Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences by BUITEMS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.buitms.edu.pk.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://journal.buitms.edu.pk/j/index.php/bj

Contacts | Feedback
© 2002-2014 BUITEMS