Performance of Conventional Drilling Fluids and Nano Based Drilling Fluids
The world’s energy demand is about to increase over 60% in next 30 years. Several mature fields are nearly in depleting conditions. The oil and gas industry is striving to seek advance methods for the recovery of the remaining hydrocarbons which are difficult to produce using conventional recovery methods. Drilling is the only way which provides a path to produce the hydrocarbons from subsurface. During drilling operations, oil and gas industry faces several problems including borehole instability, torque and drag, sticking, bit balling and issues due to high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environment etc. These challenges can only be minimized using a suitable drilling fluid system, composed of Nano-scale particles for turning the behavior of the rheological properties of drilling fluid to ensure safe drilling and production operations. Nano-scale particles are usually very ultra-fine materials, whose size ranges between the size of atom and ordinary micro-scale particles having high specific surface area of interaction. The nano-scale particles used as anadditive which exhibit strong potential inhibition both internally and externally. Due to the high specific surface area of nano sized particles, these fluids need very low concentration of the additives used.
This paper depicts the potential challenging problems encountered during drilling activity. It is also compared that how nano based smart fluids can overcome the drilling problems by improving drilling fluids properties like viscosity, density, and filtration properties etc.
Buzea C, Pacheco II and Robbie K. (2007). Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and toxicity.
Dobson JW, Cashion JP and Bellew BB. (1998). Well drilling and servicing fluids and methods of
increasing the low shear rate viscosity thereof: Google Patents.
Dolz M, Jiménez J, Hernández MJ, Delegido J and Casanovas A. (2007). Flow and thixotropy of
non-contaminating oil drilling fluids formulated with bentonite and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 57(3), 294-302.
Foerster SF, Louge MY, Chang H and Allia K. (1994). Measurements of the collision properties of small
spheres. Physics of Fluids 6(3):1108-1115.
Hemphill T, Campos W and Pilehvari A. (1993). Yield-power law model more accurately predicts mud
rheology. Oil and Gas Journal 91(34).
Hiller K. (1963). Rheological measurements on clay suspensions and drilling fluids at high temperatures
and pressures. Journal of Petroleum Technology. 15(7):779-788.
James R and Helland B. (1992). The Greater Ekofisk area: addressing drilling fluid challenges with
environmental justifications. Proc. 1992 SPE European Petroleum Conference.
Maglione R, Robotti G and Romagnoli R. (2000). In-situ rheological characterization of drilling mud.
SPE Journal 5(4):377-386.
Mahto V, Sharma V. (2004). Rheological study of a water based oil well drilling fluid. Journal of Petroleum
Science and Engineering 45(1):123-128.
Marshall C, Humbert R, Shaw B and Caldwell Og. (1942). Studies of clay particles with the electron
microscope:II. The fractionation of beidellite, nontronite, magnesium bentonite, and attapulgite. Soil
Meister M, Lee J, Krueger V, Georgi D, Chemali R. (2003). Formation pressure testing during drilling:
challenges and benefits. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition.
Rocha L A S, Junqueira P, Roque J. (2003). Overcoming deep and ultra deepwater drilling challenges.
Offshore Technology Conference.
Scott PD. (2007). Overview: Drilling and Completion Fluids. Journal of Petroleum Technology
Sridhara V and Satapathy LN. (2011). Al 2 O 3-based nanofluids: a review. Nanoscale research letters
Steiger R P. (1982). Fundamentals and use of potassium/polymer drilling fluids to minimize drilling and
completion problems associated with hydratable clays. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 34(08):
Suleimanov B, Ismailov F and Veliyev E. (2011). Nanofluid for enhanced oil recovery. Journal of
Petroleum Science and Engineering 78(2):431-437.
Wasan D T and Nikolov AD. (2003). Spreading of nanofluids on solids. Nature 423(6936):156-159.
Whitesides G M. (2005). Nanoscience, nanotechnology, and chemistry. Small 1(2):172-179.
Yu W and Xie H. (2012). A review on nanofluids: preparation, stability mechanisms, and applications.
Journal of Nanomaterials 1.