Strength Enhancement of Basalt Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Laminates with Biowaste Catalyst Free Carbon Nanospheres

Ali Nawaz Mengal, Suleiman Akilu, Mohammad Siddique

Abstract


This study aims to analyse the effects of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) on the tensile properties of basalt fibre-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (BFR). The CNSs were obtained from an economical fibrous residue attained from the sago palm tree, which is known as biowaste sago bark. Hand lay-up method was used to fabricate the unidirectional basalt fibre-reinforced epoxy composite laminates. The epoxy resin was mixed with carbon nanosphere particles (i.e., 0.6 wt% - 1 wt %). Tensile tests have been conducted as per ASTM standards. In addition, emphasis on the microstructural investigation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is given, in order to study the fracture surfaces of the composite laminates. The results demonstrated significant improvement in tensile strength when carbon nanosphere particles were included in the basalt fibre-reinforced epoxy composite laminate. The best result was obtained at 1.0 wt% CNSs. It displayed an increment of 80.6% in tensile strength, and 120% increment in Young’s modulus, respectively, in comparison to neat basalt fibre-reinforced epoxy composite laminate. The improved accomplishment of CNSs/ basalt fibre-reinforced epoxy composite laminate is due to good distribution of CNSs particles in the epoxy matrix.

Keywords


Nanospheres; In-plane shera; Basalt fiber; Biowaste; Sago bark;

Full Text:

PDF

References


Dean D, Obore AM, Richmond S and Nyairo E.

(2006). Multiscale fiber-reinforced nanocomposites:

synthesis, processing and properties. Compos Sci

Technol 66(13):2135-2142.

Liu L, Huang ZM, He CL, Han XJ. (2006).

Mechanical performance of laminated composites

incorporated with nanofibrous membranes. Mat Sci

Eng A -Struct 435:309-317.

Manikandan V, WinowlinJappes JT, Suresh

SM., Amuthakkannan P. (2012). Investigation

of the effect of surface modifications on the

mechanical properties of basalt fibre reinforced

polymer composites. Compos Part B: Eng.

(2):812-818.

Bodros E, Pillin I, Montrelay N, Baley C. (2007).

Could biopolymers reinforced by randomly

scattered flax fibre be used in structural

applications. Compos Sci Technol. 67:462–470.

Wambua P, Ivens J, Verpoest I. (2003). Natural

fibres: can they replace glass in fibre reinforced

plastics. Compos. Sci. Technol. 63:1259–1264.

Wang BP, Zhang W. (2002). Basalt fibre

properties and applications. Build Mater

Technol. Appl. 4:17-8.

Sim J, Park C, Moon DY. (2005). Characteristics

of basalt fibre as a strengthening material for

concrete structures. Compos. Part B: Eng. 36(6-

:504-512.

Lopresto V, Leone C, De Iorio I. (2011).

Mechanical characterisation of basalt fibre

reinforced plastic. Compos. Part B – Eng.

(4):717-723.

Wei B, Cao HL, Song SH. (2011). Degradation

of basalt fibre and glass fibre/epoxy resin

composites in seawater. Corros. Sci. 53(1):426-

Colombo C, Vergani L, Burman M. (2012). Static

and fatigue characterisation of new basalt fibre

reinforced composites. Compos Struct.

(3):1165-1174.

Liu Q, Shaw MT, Parnas RS, McDonell AM.

(2006). Investigation of basalt fibre composite

mechanical properties for applications in

transportation. Polym. Compos. 27(5):475-483.

Olexandr M, Yuriy T. (2005). Basalt use in hot

gas filtration. Filtr Separat 42:33-37.

Berozashvili M. (2001). Continuous reinforcing

fibres are being offered for construction, civil

engineering and other composites applications.

Adv. Mater Com News, Compos Worldwide

:5-6.

Goldsworthy WB. (2000). New basalt fibre

increases composite potential. Compos Technol.

:15.

Militky J, Kovacic V, Rubnerova J. (2002).

Influence of thermal treatment on tensile failure

of basalt fibre. Eng. Fract Mech. 69:1025–1033.

Lee J, Yoon S, Hyeon T, Oh S, Kim K. (1999).

Synthesis of a new mesoporous carbon and its

application to electrochemical double-layer

capacitors. Chem. Commun 21:2177-2178.

Yang H, Shi Q, Liu X, Xie S, Jiang D, Zhang F,

Yu C, Tu B., Zhao D. (2002). Synthesis of

ordered mesoporous carbon monoliths with

bicontinuous cubic pore structure of Ia 3d

symmetry. Chem. Commun 23:2842-2843.

Stroller, M.D.; Park, S.; Zhu, Y.; An, J.; Ruoff,

R.S. 2008, Graphene-based ultracapacitors.

Nano Lett, 8 (10), 3498-3502.

Berger C, Song Z, Li X, Brown N, Naud C,

Mayou D, Li T, Hass J, Marchenkov AN, Conrad

EH, First PN, de Heer WA. (2006). Electronic

confinement and coherence in patterned

epitaxial graphene. Science 312(5777):1191-6.

Li Y, Fan X, Qi J, Ji J, Wang S, Zhang G, Zhang

F. (2010). Palladium nanoparticle-graphene

hybrids as active catalysts for the Suzuki

reaction. Nano Res. 3 (6):429-437.

Gilje S, Han S, Wang M, Wang KL, Kaner RB.

(2007). A chemical route to graphene for device

applications. Nano Lett. 7(11):3394-3398.

Quercia L, Loffredo F, Alfano B, La Farrera V,

Di Francia G. (2004). Fabrication and

characterization of carbon nanoparticles for

polymer based vapour sensors. Sens.

Actuators B 100(1):22-28.

Guo YG, Hu YS, Maier J. (2006). Synthesis of

hierarchically mesoporous anatase spheres

and their application in lithium batteries. Chem.

Commun 26:2783-85.

Yuan ZY, Su BL. (2006). Insights into

hierarchically meso-macroporous structured

materials. J. Mater. Chem. 16(7):663-667.

Green KJ, Dean DR, Vaidya UK, Nyairo E.

(2009). Multiscale fibre reinforced composites

based on a carbon nanofiber/epoxy

nanophased polymer matrix: synthesis,

mechanical, and thermochemical behaviour.

Compos Part A – Appl. S 40(9):1470-1475.

Gauthier C, Chazeau L, Prasse T, Cavaille JY.

(2005). Reinforcement effects of vapour grown

carbon nanofibers as fillers in rubbery matrices.

Oh SJ, Lee HJ, Keum DK, Lee SW, Wang DH,

Park SY. (2006). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes

and nanofibers grafted with polyetherketones in

mild and viscous polymeric acid. Polymer

(4):1132-1140.

An Q, Rider AN, Thostenson ET. (2012).

Electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes

onto carbon-fibre fabric for production of

carbon/epoxy composites with improved

mechanical properties. Carbon 50(11):4130-

Tijing LD, Park CH, Choi WL, Ruelo MTG,

Amarjagal A, Pant HR. (2012). Characterization

and mechanical performance comparison of

multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyurethane

composites fabricated by electro-spinning and

solution casting. Compos Part B: Eng.

(1):613-619.

Hedge G, Abdul Manaf SA,Kumar A, Ali GAM,

Kwok FC, Ngaini Z, Sharma KV. (2015).

Biowaste Sago Bark Based Catalyst Free

Carbon Nanospheres: Waste to Wealth

Approach. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 3:2247-

Rahmandoust M, Ayatollahi MR. (2016).

Characterization of carbon nanotube-based

composites under consideration of defects.

Springer International Publishing Switzerland,



Contacts | Feedback
© 2002-2014 BUITEMS