Adaptable Technologies of Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water for Arsenic Hit Areas of Pakistan

Muhammad Luqman, Shahjahan Shabbir Ahmed, Sara Naudhani, Asma Yousafzai, Agha Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Mohsin Javed

Abstract


An elevated content of arsenic (As) in ground water in large area of Pakistan is becoming a serious threat to its inhabitants. Hi-tech technologies may not be feasible to remove As in rural and poverty hit areas of Pakistan because of being expensive and high operational costs. Some of the aboriginal technologies which involve Evaporation, co-precipitation and oxidation techniques are in use in rural areas of many regional countries like India, Bangladesh and Nepal quite successfully. These indigenous technologies have been proved to be good alternative to modern technologies. They are highly resilient and have great adaptability to our local conditions and can be used as good adaptable options in the scenario of climate change and increased water pollution. For operation of these technologies no electricity is needed and no pressure is required. No expensive chemicals, no mechanical complexity and no expensive membranes are involved in fabrication of these equipments. Yet highly productive to remove the As contents in drinking water to the desired level as per WHO standards. The purpose of the present review article is to prepare an account of such workable indigenous technologies based on evaporation, oxidation and co-precipitation techniques and fabricated locally, which could be used in the field by solution seekers in rural areas of Pakistan. These technologies can be attuned to a wide range of As contents and can be fruitfully pioneered in Pakistan with minute alteration and little training of villagers.

Keywords


Arsenic Removal; Indigenous Technology; Drinking Water

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