Development of Resistance Mechanism in Mosquitoes: Cytochrome P450, the Ultimate Detoxifier

Arif Malik, Khalid Mahmud Khan, Muhammad Asif, Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan, Sara Zahid, Abdul Manan, Mahmood Rasool

Abstract


The development of resistance in different species of mosquitoes increases day by day. Malaria, yellow fever, dengue and many other diseases spread by the mosquitoes. According to the WHO report, it is estimated that about 247 million individuals are infected by malaria every year. Biochemical, physiological and behavioral resistance exists in mosquitoes. Glutathione-S- transferase (GST), carboxylesterase and Cytochrome P450 are enzymes families playing role in the metabolic resistance. These enzymes play key role in pyrethroid, carbamate and xenobiotic detoxification and metabolism. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes present in mosquitoes cause resistance. In Anopheles gambiae, cytochrome P450 found to be the main cause of resistance to insecticides. Over expression of P450 is reflected by the cause of development of resistance. GSTs are present in cytosol detoxify endogenous and xenobiotics. Inhibiting the expression of resistance causing enzymes will lead to overcome the resistance produced in mosquitoes.

Keywords


GST;Carboxylesterase;cytochrome P450;pyrethroid;lipid peroxidation;metabolic resistance

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